The Modhera Sun Temple was made by King Bhima I of the Chalukya dynasty in the early 11th century. Sun Temple Modhera’s Gujarat. Temple and its dedication to the Sun God will leave you stunned. The temple was so constructed that during every equinox, the first sun rays would fall on a diamond placed on the Sun God’s head and the entire temple would illuminate in a golden glow.
On other days, two pillars before the garbhagriha would stay illuminated throughout the day, regardless of the position of the sun. All of these can only be left to the imagination now.
History Of The Sun Temple
The Sun Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the solar deity Surya located at Modhera village of Mehsana district, Gujarat. India. It is situated on the bank of the river Pushpavati. It was built after 1026-27 CE during the reign of Bhima of the Chalukyas dynasty.
The Temple Complex Has Three Components
The temple complex is built in (Chaulukya style). The temple complex has three axially aligned components; the shrine proper (garbhagriha) in a hall (gudhamandapa), the outer or assembly hall (sabhamandapa or rangamandapa), and a sacred reservoir (Kunda).
The Sabhamandapa is not in continuation with Gudhamandapa but is placed little away as a separate structure. Both are built on a paved platform. Their roofs have collapsed long ago leaving behind a few lower-most courses. Both roofs are 15′ 9″ in diameter but are constructed differently. The platform or plinth is inverted lotus-shaped.
1.)Gudhamandapa, the shrine hall:-
The Gudhamandapa measures 51 feet 9 inches by 25 feet 8 inches. It is almost equally divided into Gudhamandapa, the hall, and Garbhgriha, the shrine proper. Both are rectangular in plan with one projection on each of the smaller sides and two projections on each of the longer sides. These projections on the smaller sides form the entrance and the back of the shrine.
2.)Sabhamandapa, the assembly hall:-
Sabhamandapa or Rangamandapa, the assembly hall or dancing hall is parallelogram in plan with rows of pillars opening entrance on each side diagonally. The extensively carved exterior has a series of recessed corners giving an impression of the star-like plan of it.[There are 52 intricately carved pillars. Madhusudan Dhaky has suggested that the sabhamandapa may have been later addition based on style and construction.
3.)Kunda, the reservoir:-
Kunda, a tank or reservoir is known as Ramakunda or Suryakunda. The flight of steps through kirti-torana leads to the reservoir. It is rectangular. It measures 176 feet from north to south and 120 feet from east to west. It is paved with stones all around. There are four terraces and recessed steps to descend to reach the bottom of the tank. The main entrance lies in the west. There are steps to reach from one terrace to another on the right angle to the terrace. These steps are rectangular or square except for the first step of each flight of steps which is semicircular. Several miniature shrines and niches in front of the terrace-wall have images of gods including many Vaishnavite deities and goddesses such as Shitala.
However, the sabha mandap still stands on 52 pillars, depicting the 52 weeks in year carvings of the sun, along with its unity with the other 4 elements-air, water, earth, and space- can be spotted on the walls. The halls have intricately carved exterior and pillars. The reservoir has steps to reach the bottom and numerous small shrines.
What Is The Specialty Of Sun Temple of Modhera?
The Sun Temple is a Hindu temple dedicated to the solar deity Surya located at Modhera village of Mehsana district, Gujarat, India. It is situated on the bank of the river Pushpavati. It was built after 1026-27 CE during the reign of Bhima I of the Chalukyas dynasty.
No worship is offered now and is a protected monument maintained by the Archaeological Survey Of India. At present, the temple is undertaken by the Archaeological Survey of India for renovation and restoration. In 2014, this Modhera Sun Temple was added to the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
There are only 2 sun temples built in India. One is in Konark, Odisha, and others in Modhera, Gujarat.
Who Destroyed Sun Temple Jammu & Kashmir?
Martand is another Sanskrit synonym for Surya. Now in ruins, the temple is located five miles from Anantnag in the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir. The temple was destroyed on the orders of Sultan Sikandar Butshikan, as part of his efforts to forcibly convert Kashmiri people to Islam.
The Tourism Corporation of Gujarat organizes an annual three-day dance festival known as ‘Uttarardha Mahotsav’ at the temple during the third week of January, following the festival of Uttarayan. The objective is to present classical dance forms in an atmosphere similar to that in which they were originally presented.
How To Reach Modhera Gujarat?
By Air: You can fly to the nearest city to Modhera-Ahmedabad-from where regular government bus services are available.
By Train: For the ones boarding a train instead, the nearest railway station is at Mehsana-25 km from Modhera.
By Road: Modhera Sun Temple can be easily reached by boarding a bus or hiring a taxi from anywhere in Gujarat. The Modhera Sun Temple indeed leaves you awestruck. It is one place, amidst all the ruins, where you’ll find a perfect blend of ageless creativity and tremendous hard work.
Rating: 5 out of 5.
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Today, if I asked for anybody in India. Which is the cleanest village in India and Asia? Most of the people do not know the answer to this question, it is ok, but most of the Indian people never think of this type of cleanliness they found in this village of India.
All we educated people to know everything about hygiene and cleanliness but we forget that important lesson in normal life. That we live in a beautiful country and it is our responsibility for the cleanliness of our nearby surroundings, but we thought the government will take care of this because we pay taxes that kind of selfishness, hypocrisy & ego we most of the Indians have.
That is why small countries like Taiwan, Hongkong, Singapore, Malaysia, Canada, Dubai do better than us, and when we will travel to such small countries than we feel how dirty our countries and governments can’t do anything. This kind of mindset we develop in our selves even though we learn about hygiene & cleanliness lessons from our childhood.
Welcome To ‘The Cleanest Village In India’ The East Khasi Hills, Hills of Meghalaya also referred to as ‘God’s own garden’ has won the acclaim of being the cleanest village in Asia in 2003.
Meghalaya is one of the seven small states of India’s remote northeast region and home to the “Cleanest Village in India.” The mountain road climbs to Mawlynnong, at an altitude of 5,000 feet, giving way to Bangladesh farther south.
About this village in 2014, there are about 95 households in Mawlynnong approx 700-800 mix of Man, Women, Children, and old people and the literacy rate is 90%.
The people residing in the community are Khasi people. The population is mostly Christian and the village has three churches.
Their main occupation is agriculture. Betel nut being the main crop of this village or region. During summers, one can find pineapples and lychees which are then exported to the nearby regions as well.
Today Mawlynnong is known for its cleanliness worldwide. The main question comes in my mind if this village person not very filthy rich so how can they do this kind of job cleanliness or the government support them.
But my friends these people not very well educated but they have the determination to work for their village to clean that kind of motive and passion change the economics of this village.
Every day in the morning the wastes are collected in the dustbins made of bamboo, directed to a pit, and then used as manure.
A community initiative mandates that all residents should participate in cleaning up the village.
Smoking and the use of polythene are banned while rainwater harvesting is encouraged.
The travel magazine Discover India declared the village as the cleanest in Asia in 2003, and the cleanest in India in 2005.
This reputation has boosted local tourism; in 2017 according to the village headsman, incomes had increased by 60 percent due to increased tourism.
They have a very beautiful ritual as is the tradition of the Khasi people, in Mawlynnong property and wealth are passed from the mother to the youngest of her daughters, who also keeps the mother’s surname.
Mawlynnong proves that women empowerment and 100 percent literacy rate, both are achievable. Extending warm hospitality to their guests also happens to be one of the most well-known qualities of the natives of Mawlynnong.
The Living Root Bridges in Mawlynnong have been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Hanging on a river, the bridges are made by connecting the aerial roots of one massive rubber tree with another.
The best part about the food you eat in Mawlynnong is that all of it is prepared using organically grown vegetables. Even the meat comes from in-house bred birds and animals. There is a wide variety to vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes to savor; pick from pork tossed in bell peppers and greens, freshly-cut and smoked banana-flower, Jadoh – meat and rice-based delight), and Tungrymbai – a sumptuous mesh of fermented soybeans, bamboo leaves, and local spices.
In Mawlynnong, you’ll find some nice homestays that allow you to stay close to nature and have a lovely time with the locals. Some homestays are traditionally-built huts, while a few are built from concrete.
In Mawlynnong accommodation is simple, and comes with basic facilities. Recommended Mawlynnong guesthouses/homestays: Ila Jong Homestay, Bangladesh View Homestay, Hala Tyngkong, Epiphany Society Guest House, & Sahpyngngad Homestay.The average cost per night: INR 2000.
After attaining the title of the Cleanest Village in Asia, Mawlynnong became a popular tourist attraction. Well-connected to major cities like Shillong and Cherrapunji, Mawlynnong can be easily reached by road. Here are different ways to reach the village:
By road: Roads towards Mawlynnong are majorly in good condition. You can easily find buses plying between the village and nearby areas like Cherrapunji and Shillong. By air: Nearest airport from Mawlynnong located in Shillong, at a distance of 78 km. There are direct flights from Kolkata to Shillong. However, if you’re coming from other cities like Delhi, you’ll have to go for a connecting flight. On reaching the airport, you can hire a taxi or board a bus to reach Mawlynnong By rail: Guwahati is the nearest major railway station from Mawlynnong, 172 km away. Opt for a bus ride or taxi from the station in order to reach the village.
The best months to visit Meghalaya is between October and June. Early summer and winter are quite pleasant. But due to heavy rainfall during monsoons, a lot of tourists avoid visiting from July till September.
Coffee grown in the forests of India, the world’s sixth-largest producer of coffee, is cultivated under thick canopies in the Western Ghats — a UNESCO World Heritage site and one of the world’s most important biodiversity hotspots. In the 2016-17 season, India produced 5.5 million bags of coffee.
The story of coffee in India
Coffee was introduced to India during the late seventeenth century. The story goes that an Indian pilgrim to Mecca – known as Baba Budan – smuggled seven beans back to India from Yemen in 1670 (it was illegal to take coffee seeds out of Arabia at the time) and planted them in the Chandragiri hills of Karnataka.
India has produced the finest coffee beans in the world.
Indian coffee is said to be the finest coffee grown in the shade rather than direct sunlight anywhere in the world. There are about 250,000 coffee growers in the country; 98% of them are small growers. The two well-known species of coffee grown are the Arabica and Robusta.
Coffee production in India is dominated in the hill tracts of South Indian states, with Karnataka accounting for 71%, followed by Kerala with 21%, and Tamil Nadu (5% of overall production with 8,200 tonnes).
Most expensive coffee in the world produced by India
India, Asia’s third-largest producer and exporter of coffee, has started producing the world’s most expensive coffee, made from the poop of civet cat, on a small scale in Coorg district of Karnataka. It is produced from the coffee beans digested by the civet cat. The feces of this cat are collected, processed, and sold.
Kopi luwak is made from coffee beans plucked from civets’ feces. This is bad news for civets. It’s the world’s most expensive coffee, and it’s made from poop. Their digestive enzymes change the structure of proteins in the coffee beans, which removes some of the acidity to make a smoother cup of coffee.
How much does a cup of Kopi Luwak cost?
In the West, kopi luwak has become known as “cat poop coffee.” With prices ranging between $35 and $100 a cup, or about $100 to $600 a pound, kopi luwak is widely considered to be the most expensive coffee in the world.
What does Kopi Luwak taste like?
It is noticeably not bitter and is intensely aromatic. It has a complex flavor profile that is smooth, earthy, and sweet with a hint of chocolate. Please note: Due to the wild popularity of Kopi Luwak, several plantations farm raise palm civets, sometimes in deplorable conditions, to produce Kopi Luwak.
Why is Kopi Luwak coffee so good?
It would appear that the Luwak processing diminishes good acidity and flavor and adds smoothness to the body, which is what many people seem to note as a positive to the coffee”. Nutty, smooth, and earthy tones do sound good, but it doesn’t sound unique. In fact, there are quite a few coffees with those tendencies.
India has been 80% off Coffee export to the world.
Coffee production states of India are dominated by South India, Karnataka is the largest producer of coffee in India followed by the new areas developed in the North East. Almost 80% of Indian coffee is exported through the Suez Canal to Russia, Spain, Netherlands, and France.
Drinking coffee has many health benefits.
Drinking 1 -2 cups of black coffee every day reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Black coffee also reduces the inflammation level in the body. Black coffee is the powerhouse of antioxidants. Black coffee contains Vitamin B2, B3, B5, Manganese, potassium, and magnesium.
Which coffee is made in India?
The two main varieties of coffee viz., Arabica and Robusta are grown in India. Arabica is a mild coffee, but the beans being more aromatic, it has higher market value compared to Robusta beans. On the other hand, Robusta has more strength and is, therefore, used in making various blends.
Conclusion In conclusion, coffee is a better source of caffeine than energy drinks because it provides a stimulating effect without putting an individual at risk of health problems. The extensive research conducted over the years about coffee help to affirm that viewpoint.