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Valmiki Tiger Reserve National Park Bihar

Valmiki Tiger Reserve

Valmiki National Park is among the most prominent tiger reserves in India. Located near the Indo-Nepal border in West Champaran district of Bihar, the tiger reserve is spread over an area of about 880 sq km.

The Valmiki Tiger Reserve comprises of the Valmiki National Park and the Valmiki Wild Sanctuary. It is the 18th tiger reserve in the country and with 10 tigers ranks fourth in terms of tiger population.

In 1978, the reserve had an area of 464 sq km. In 1989, the national park and wildlife sanctuary was added to the area of the reserve and in 1990 the total area of the reserve was increased to the existing 880 sq km area.

Best months to see the Valmiki wilderness:

October to March is the best time to visit the sanctuary. The winter months (December to mid-February) are colder and the minimum temperature goes down to 7 – 8 degrees Celsius.
Heavy warm clothing is desired in winter.

Floral Diversity:

The mixed moist deciduous vegetation along the alluvial plains of the Gandak River is dominated by sal (Shorea robusta), Rohini (Mallotus phillipensis) and sihor (Strebulus asper). Terminalia tomentosa, Terminalia belerica, Adina cordifolia, Dalbergia latifolia, Mitragyna parviflora, Ehretia laevis, Angeissus latifolia are some of the important associates of Sal forests.
The natural forests are interspersed with plantations of teak (Tectona grandis), bamboo, semal (Salmalia malabarica), shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) and khair (Acacia catechu).

Faunal Diversity:

Diverse habitats of the Sanctuary support a variety of faunal life forms. Tigers, Leopards and Indian Wild Dogs are the large predators. Leopard cat and fishing cat are also found in patches. Deer species are represented by spotted deer, sambar, barking deer and hog deer. Indian bison (Gaur), Nilgai and wild boar are other ungulates found in these forests. Rhesus macaque and common Langur are primates of the sanctuary. Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) has recorded fifty three mammal species in the sanctuary.

Python, crocodile, king cobra, krait, monitor lizard, hill turtle are some common reptiles. The ZSI has recorded 10 species of amphibians, 27 species of reptiles and 75 species of insects.

Accommodation

 Valmiki Vihar, a tourist lodge of State Tourism Development Corporation Hotel is located at the picturesque site at Valmiki Nagar.  

There are ten (10) eco-huts of double bed occupancy located at Valmikinagar (two), Naurangia Done (two), Manguraha (2) and Gobardhana (four). Besides, one tree-hut is located at kotraha for altitude lovers.

Forest Rest Houses (two double-bed rooms in each) are located at Kotraha, Madanpur, Naurangia Done, Gobardhana, Manguraha, and Manpur. Four double-bed rooms at Ganauli is a wooden forest rest house. This building has the potential to get heritage status.

Tickets and Surcharges

Booking for accommodation can be done only 60 days in advance and only for 4 days at a stretch.

Eco hut- Gobardhana: INR 1500 (Maximum two persons allowed in a room)
Eco hut- Kotraha: INR 1500 (Maximum two persons allowed in a room)
Eco hut- Naurangia : INR 1500 (Maximum two persons allowed in a room)
Eco hut- Manguraha: INR 1500 (Maximum two persons allowed in a room)
Treehut- Gobardhana : INR 1500 (Maximum two persons allowed in a room)

Safari Details and Charges

Gypsy/ Jeep Safari (4 persons) for 2 hours 30 minutes – INR 600 per group
Rafting (8 persons) for 3 hours – INR 2000 per group
Boating (4 persons) for 3 hours – INR 500 per group
Nature Walk (4 – 6 persons) for 3 – 4 hours – INR 100 per person
Border Trek (10 – 15 persons) for 10 – 12 hours – INR 500 per person
Jungle Camp (4 – 6 persons) for a night – INR 200 per person
Tiger Trail (4 – 6 persons) for 3 – 4 hours – INR 200 per person
Cycling – INR 20 per hour

Places of Interest at Valmiki National Park

The place is dotted with temples, shrines and historical monuments. Some of the prominent and must-visit attractions of Valmiki National Park include-
1. Bheriyari Watch Tower

This one is located in the Bheriyari Grassland region and is ideal for bird watching several exotic bird species at play and viewing the herbivores in the natural habitat.

2. Bhikhna Thori

Located exactly on the Indo- Nepal Border, this is the north- eastern end of the sanctuary. This is a popular route to Tibet across Nepal. History tells us that it was the common resting place called ?thaur? in the native language, for the Buddhist monks and hence it is called “Bhiktchuk thaur” or “Bhikhna thori”. King George Vth rested here on his way to Nepal and it has been a popular picnic and leisure spot ever since.

3. Rohua Nala

Rohua Nala is a tributary of River Gandak and is situated in the Mandalpur range. The region is a beautiful combination of wetlands, forests, swamps and cenebrakes. The region has been declared as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by the Indian Bird Conservation Network. Besides several beautiful sightings of exotic birds, the place also facilities boating activities in traditional Shikara boats. You can also spot rhinoceros in the region.

4. Kapan

Kapan is a major perennial river originating from the Raghia Range. Walking northwards along the river, you can witness one of the most beautiful trails of the Park with forest on the side and the trailing river in the centre. You can also spot kingfishers, green pigeons and Indian bisons here.

5. Lalbhitiya

Lalbhitiya is a most beautiful vantage point in the area providing an alluring bird’s eye view of pure- sal forests. The highlight of the place are the mesmerising sunrise and sunset views. On clear days, you can also see the snow white pearly peaks of the Himalayas from here. The place is a common favourite among solace seekers, nature wanderers and bird watchers.

6. Manor Trek

Manor Trek is a comparatively easy trek of 1.5 kms which the tourists can undertake on their own. The trail passes along the forest to the Manor watchtower which provides majestic views of the adjoining snow clad Himalayas and beautiful panoramas of the river manor below.

7. Parewa Dah

Parewa Dah is considered the most beautiful spot of the Valmiki Natural Forest and a trip to the park is considered incomplete without a visit to this place. Parewa means ?pigeons? and ?dah? means water- bodies and put together, Parewa Dah means a place where both these factors co-exist. The area is replete with water doves,pigeons and bee-eaters swarming the emerald blue waters. The water is so clear that you can even see the fish swimming at shallow levels.

8. Someshwar Peak

Perched at an elevation of 2884 meters, Someshwar Peak is the highest peak in the region which can be reached through a trek of 14 km from the base camp. Although the tiring trekking pays off at the top which offers sweeping views of the forest below in the backdrop of the mighty mountains of the Himalayan Range. The path has several stop points like the Titanic Point and Hill Top etc. On the border is located Someshwar Temple dedicated to Shiva and Kali. At the base of the temple are the ruins of the hermitage of Baba Bhatrihari.

9. Valmiki Nagar

Valmiki Nagar is the adjoining tiny town of Valmiki Nagar on the banks of river Gandak at the Indo – Nepal border. The Gandak Barrage has a viewpoint that offers magnificent views of the Triveni and other nearby areas. The area also offers rare sightings of gharials, dolphins, crocodiles, turtles, and other rare and endangered birds, etc. Besides the serene landscape and tranquility, you can also experience river rafting in the area.
Valmiki National Park

Activities at Valmiki National Park

1. Nature Walk

The rich wildlife and the diverse topography makes for wonderful nature walks through the forests. The volunteers are taken on a guided walking tour spanning 4 – 5 km to give them an idea of the flourishing ecosystem of the forests. These groups of 5 – 6 people are guided by professionals and children below the age of 15 years are not allowed. It is a must-experience activity when at the sanctuary to witness the plenteous flora and fauna, and to be awed at the grand and cozy forests brimming with wondrous bounteous nature.
2. Border Trek

Located at the brink of the India- Nepal border with the Someshwar Range as the border between the two countries, the wildlife sanctuary provides facilitates beautiful treks in the region. From the top of the hill peaks, one can take a mesmerizing bird’s eye view of the tiger reserve and the national park, in addition to the parallely located Chitwan National Park in Nepal. The trek is a day-long activity, conducted from 7:00 AM – 5:00 PM. Besides testing your fitness agility and grit, the trek takes you through a wonderland of steep slopes, settling riverine, meandering streams, and along with narrow passes in the forests. The package includes packed meals en-route. This trek is conducted in groups of 10 – 15 people led by a professional guide. Children below the age of 15 years are not allowed.
3. Jungle Camp

This is one of the most thrilling activities at the camp which is conducted in the anti-poaching camps or in one of the watchtowers. The package includes beds, spotlights, and night vision devices. Special care is taken not to disturb the natural habitat of the plants and animals. Midnight creeks and howls of the wild animals are sure to get up your adrenaline rush. In a group, 2 – 4 people can be accommodated and children below 15 years are not allowed.
4. Tiger Trail

One of the most exciting highlights of Valmiki National Park is the Tiger trail activity. The trek starts early at dawn in the supervision of the tiger trekkers where you follow the trails walked by the king of the forest- Bengal tigers. In case it is your lucky day, you might get to see a kill or the spoils of the tigers. The trek is also very informative where the participants are taught how to identify various pugmarks, scratches, and scents. The group consists of 4 – 6 participants and children below 15 years are not allowed.
5. Watchtowers

There are several wooden watchtowers housed in the forests from where the tourists can take a peek into the privacy of the wildlife. Besides the towers offer enchanting views of the rivers, the confluence, and the majestic Himalayan ranges. These watchtowers are also installed at Thori, Bajani, Singha Sonbarsa, Bherihari, and Bhaluthapa.

How to Reach

Through Railways:

 The sanctuary is situated on Gorakhpur–Muzaffarpur (via Narkatiganj) rail route. Direct trains are available from major cities of the country to reach the sanctuary. Daily/weekly trains are available from New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Siliguri, Dehradun, and Amritsar to arrive at Bagaha (to reach the western part of the sanctuary) and Narkatiaganj (to reach the central and eastern part of the sanctuary). Muzaffarpur and Gorakhpur are the nearest major junctions to get passenger/mail/express trains for Bagaha and Narkatiaganj. The Field Directorate located at the district headquarters of West Champaran at Bettiah, about 70 km from the sanctuary, is also on the same rail route.
Road Approach:

 The sanctuary is about 275 km from Patna, the capital city of Bihar; 200 km from Muzaffarpur, major city and railhead of North Bihar; 70 km for Bettiah, district headquarters of West Champaran; and 125 km from Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh, by road. Vehicles can be hired from these places to reach the sanctuary.
Nearest Airports:  

Patna, Kolkata, and Gorakhpur.

Rules and Regulations

Valmiki National Park observes a vast set of rules and regulations.
Liquor consumption or visiting under the influence of liquor is strictly prohibited.

Teasing or disturbing animals in their natural setting is prohibited.
Damage to any plants or trees is not allowed.

Smoking or carrying any inflammable material is not allowed.

Playing any kind of music or any musical instrument during any treks or safaris is prohibited.

Carrying and consuming food in the forests is not allowed.
Carrying ammunition or any arms is strictly prohibited.

Pros & Cons. –

Pros: Clean, unexplored, well maintained Eco huts and helpful staff of the forest department.

Cons: Connectivity and availability of any conveyance. (U have to depend on the vehicle of forest Department) Lack of trained guide. Non-availability of Jungle Safari at Naurangia Done.

Rating: 1 out of 5.
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THE WORLD’S MOST EXPENSIVE COFFEE MADE FROM CAT POOP.

Introduction about coffee

Hi,

Today I would like to share my blog on the most expensive coffee and other famous coffee Indian brands in the world made in India.



About Coffee

Coffee grown in the forests of India, the world’s sixth-largest producer of coffee, is cultivated under thick canopies in the Western Ghats — a UNESCO World Heritage site and one of the world’s most important biodiversity hotspots. In the 2016-17 season, India produced 5.5 million bags of coffee.

The story of coffee in India

Coffee was introduced to India during the late seventeenth century. The story goes that an Indian pilgrim to Mecca – known as Baba Budan – smuggled seven beans back to India from Yemen in 1670 (it was illegal to take coffee seeds out of Arabia at the time) and planted them in the Chandragiri hills of Karnataka.

India has produced the finest coffee beans in the world.

Indian coffee is said to be the finest coffee grown in the shade rather than direct sunlight anywhere in the world. There are about 250,000 coffee growers in the country; 98% of them are small growers. The two well-known species of coffee grown are the Arabica and Robusta.

Coffee production in India is dominated in the hill tracts of South Indian states, with Karnataka accounting for 71%, followed by Kerala with 21%, and Tamil Nadu (5% of overall production with 8,200 tonnes).

Most expensive coffee in the world produced by India

India, Asia’s third-largest producer and exporter of coffee, has started producing the world’s most expensive coffeemade from the poop of civet cat, on a small scale in Coorg district of Karnataka. It is produced from the coffee beans digested by the civet cat. The feces of this cat are collected, processed, and sold.

Coffee from Civet Poop

Kopi luwak is made from coffee beans plucked from civets’ feces. This is bad news for civets. It’s the world’s most expensive coffee, and it’s made from poop. Their digestive enzymes change the structure of proteins in the coffee beans, which removes some of the acidity to make a smoother cup of coffee.

How much does a cup of Kopi Luwak cost?

In the West, kopi luwak has become known as “cat poop coffee.” With prices ranging between $35 and $100 a cup, or about $100 to $600 a pound, kopi luwak is widely considered to be the most expensive coffee in the world.

Civet Cat Eating Coffee Beans

What does Kopi Luwak taste like?

It is noticeably not bitter and is intensely aromatic. It has a complex flavor profile that is smooth, earthy, and sweet with a hint of chocolate. Please note: Due to the wild popularity of Kopi Luwak, several plantations farm raise palm civets, sometimes in deplorable conditions, to produce Kopi Luwak.

Why is Kopi Luwak coffee so good?

It would appear that the Luwak processing diminishes good acidity and flavor and adds smoothness to the body, which is what many people seem to note as a positive to the coffee”. Nutty, smooth, and earthy tones do sound good, but it doesn’t sound unique. In fact, there are quite a few coffees with those tendencies.

Civet Cat POOP

India has been 80% off Coffee export to the world.

Coffee production states of India are dominated by South India, Karnataka is the largest producer of coffee in India followed by the new areas developed in the North East. Almost 80% of Indian coffee is exported through the Suez Canal to Russia, Spain, Netherlands, and France.

Drinking coffee has many health benefits.

Drinking 1 -2 cups of black coffee every day reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases including stroke. Black coffee also reduces the inflammation level in the body. Black coffee is the powerhouse of antioxidants. Black coffee contains Vitamin B2, B3, B5, Manganese, potassium, and magnesium.

Which coffee is made in India?

The two main varieties of coffee viz., Arabica and Robusta are grown in India. Arabica is a mild coffee, but the beans being more aromatic, it has higher market value compared to Robusta beans. On the other hand, Robusta has more strength and is, therefore, used in making various blends.

Best Coffee brands in India 2021 (At a Glance)

1. Nescafe (Best Coffee in India)

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Starbucks

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Café Coffee Day

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Tata Coffee

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Bru

“rajblog5.com/the-worlds-most-expensive-coffee-made-from-cat-poop/image/Bru

Davidoff

“rajblog5.com/the-worlds-most-expensive-coffee-made-from-cat-poop/image/David-Off”

The Flying Squirrel

“rajblog5.com/the-worlds-most-expensive-coffee-made-from-cat-poop/image/the-flying-squirrel”

The Coffee Co

“rajblog5.com/the-worlds-most-expensive-coffee-made-from-cat-poop/image/the-coffee-co”

Lavazza

“rajblog5.com/the-worlds-most-expensive-coffee-made-from-cat-poop/image/Lavazza”

Seven Beans Co.

“rajblog5.com/the-worlds-most-expensive-coffee-made-from-cat-poop/image/Seven-Beans”

Blue Tokai

“rajblog5.com/the-worlds-most-expensive-coffee-made-from-cat-poop/image/Blue-Tokai

Conclusion

Conclusion In conclusion, coffee is a better source of caffeine than energy drinks because it provides a stimulating effect without putting an individual at risk of health problems. The extensive research conducted over the years about coffee help to affirm that viewpoint.

Rating: 5 out of 5.

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